Clinical Chemistry Products
Clinical chemistry (also known as chemical pathology, clinical biochemistry or medical biochemistry) is the area of chemistry that is generally concerned with analysis of bodily fluids for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. It is an applied form of biochemistry.
The discipline originated in the late 19th century with the use of simple chemical reaction tests for various components of blood and urine. In the many decades since, other techniques have been applied as science and technology have advanced, including the use and measurement of enzyme activities, spectrophotometry, electrophoresis, and immunoassay. There are now many blood tests and clinical urine tests with extensive diagnostic capabilities.
Most current laboratories are now highly automated to accommodate the high workload typical of a hospital laboratory. Tests performed are closely monitored and quality controlled.
All biochemical tests come under chemical pathology. These are performed on any kind of body fluid, but mostly on serum or plasma. Serum is the yellow watery part of blood that is left after blood has been allowed to clot and all blood cells have been removed.
This large array of tests can be categorised into sub-specialities of:
- General or routine chemistry – commonly ordered blood chemistries (e.g., liver and kidney function tests).
- Special chemistry – elaborate techniques such as electrophoresis, and manual testing methods.
- Clinical endocrinology – the study of hormones, and diagnosis of endocrine disorders.
- Toxicology – the study of drugs of abuse and other chemicals.
- Therapeutic Drug Monitoring – measurement of therapeutic medication levels to optimize dosage.